The Northeastern parts of the Armenian highlands, known as Lesser Caucasus, cover the regions of Southern Georgia and Western Azerbaijan. A large portion of the highlands from part of Eastern and Southeastern Turkey, and also include Northwestern Iran and the entire region of Armenia. Today, we see many traces of ancient human civilization in some of these regions.
How does Armenia fit into the origin of human civilization, one might ask? Well, the Neolithic Revolution was an era throughout Armenian history in which the lifestyle of humans developed considerably. The development of agriculture in the Armenian highlands enabled the establishment of human settlements in a suitable area, as opposed to a more nomadic life which people were used to. Being able to cultivate their land, meant that people could produce their crops. They needed to be close to their fields, and so started to build their shelters and homes to live in, which eventually saw them moving further away and no longer inhabited the caves in which they once lived. Today there are still many ancient structures reflecting their way of life during that era.
A large part of the Armenian highlands form part of modern day Turkey. Wiih evıdence of the Neolithic period extending as far as the ancient site of Çatalhöyük, to be the first "urban development". The houses which remain were constructed such that the entrance to their homes was through the roof, and the walls around the town were built using mud – brick and were decorated with paintings depicting their natural surroundings. Painted sculptures of "Mother Goddess" were quite common at the time and are indicative of a matriarchal society.
Hacilar, an area in present-day Anatolia, shows remnants of their agriculture, where archeologists discovered wheat, barley, and lentils in the remaining houses, providing us with an idea of their diet and lifestyle. Creating and using pottery formed part of their everyday lives. This was a benefit for people in that era, as they were able to produce and harvest their crops throughout the year and store them for later use. In this manner, the food was plentiful, and they were able to feed others and make an income from their harvest.
Archeological excavations have shown some insight into the developments which took place during that era. The remaining structures of temples show evidence of a more advanced knowledge with constructions of "strong, load – bearing structures." Another significant site, known as Göbellli Tepe, where excavations have shown paintings on the stone pillars depicting, suggesting evidence of the structural advancements of early life in the Armenian Highlands.